What is the OFA or Orthopedic Foundation for Animals?

  • OFA is a foundation that promotes the health and welfare of companion animals through a reduction in the incidence of genetic disease.
  • Please view our "Meet the Parents" page to view OFA certifications.
  • The Orthopedic Foundation for Animal


Why  do you screen for genetic conditions or health related issues?

  • Responsible breeders have an inherent responsibility to breed healthy dogs.
  • DNA markers for canine genetic diseases are being found at a rapid rate.
  • To improve the genetic health of our breed through better breeding practices.
  • To try and provide the healthiest puppies with their new families.


What is congenital cardiac disease?

  • Malformation of the heart  or great vessels is called congenital heart disease.
  • "Many congenital heart defects are thought to be genetically transmitted from parents to offspring; however, the exact modes of inheritance have not been precisely determined for all cardiovascular malformations." cited : OFA.org 06, April 2016.
  • Not all heart conditions are hereditary, however, we do screen and try our best to provide you with  a healthy puppy. Some heart conditions can be fixed, some cannot, and some may cause no symptoms throughout the dog’s life except for the presence of a heart murmur.


What are the symptoms of congenital cardiac disease?

  • coughing
  • abnormal behavior
  • abnormal sleeping
  • vomiting
  • Fainting
  • edema
  • weight gain or weight loss
  • isolation


What is Patellar Luxation:

  • The knee cap on a canine is also called the Patella, located in the knee. With a Patellar Luxation, the knee cap can moves in and out of its natural place, medially or laterally. This can cause lameness and limping in canines.
  • The causes of this condition can be congenital, genetic and/or traumatic.
  • Breeds with a genetic predisposition for luxating patellae are Miniature and Toy Poodles, Maltese, Jack Russell Terriers, Yorkshire Terriers, Pomeranians, Pekingese, Chihuahuas, Papillons, Cavalier King Charles Spaniels, and Boston Terriers. Please note – not all members of these breeds are affected with a luxating patella, only a small portion. However, we will do our best to screen for this condition.
  • A luxating patella can affect one or both knees, bilaterally or unilateral.
  • There are four (4) levels or grades of Patellar Luxation:
    • Grade 1 : manually can be moved, but goes back on its own. Does not need surgery to correct.
    • Grade 2 : manually can be moved, but might require manual manipulation to put back. Does not need surgery to correct .
    • Grade 3 : Kneecap might sit outside groove, but can be manually put back into place.  May or may not need surgery to correct.
    • Grade 4: this is most severe grade of Patellar Luxation. Knee cap sits outside of grove and will not stay in place when manually manipulated.
  • The ligaments can tighten around the knee cap, as the puppy ages, diminishing the luxating patella. This is done with exercise and proper nutrition.
  • If a puppy or dog is diagnosed with a luxating patella, animals with this disorder should not be used for breeding due to the strong genetic relations . They still can  make excellent pets, and those that require surgery still lead normal healthy lives.


What is MDR1 Disease Screening?

  • MDR1, or Multi-Drug Resistance-1 is a genetic mutation test that is screened on our  F1 Pomsky puppies prior to arriving to their new home. 
  • We are proud to say that all of our puppies are MDR1 normal/normal (n/n), with no mutant genes or mutations.  Which means your Pomsky puppy will not have an increased risk for experiencing side effects from drugs that are pumped by P-glycoprotein.
  • We offer valid DNA MDR1 screening results with every Pomsky puppy adopted. It is important to share these results with your veterinarian so they can provide your Pomsky with the best possible care.


What do the test results of MDR1 Screening mean (there are three (3) results)?

  • Normal / Normal (n/n): These dogs do not carry the mutation, and will not pass the mutation to their offspring.  They would not be expected to experience unexpected adverse drug reactions. All of our Pomskies are normal/normal (n/n).
  • Mutant / Mutant (m/m): These dogs carry the mutation, will pass on the mutant gene to their offspring, and would be expected to experience toxicity after normal doses of certain drugs.
  • Mutant / Normal (m/n): These dogs carry the mutation, may pass on the mutant gene to their offspring, and may experience toxicity after normal doses of certain drugs.


Why is it important to test for the MDR1 Gene and what is it?

  • MDR1 or Multi-Drug Resistance 1 is a gene found in many designer, hybrid and purebred dog breeds. The MDR1 gene is responsible for production of a protein called P-glycoprotein. The P-glycoprotein molecule is a drug transport pump that plays an important role in limiting drug absorption and distribution (particularly to the brain) and enhancing the excretion/elimination of many drugs used in dogs.
  • If a canine has a mutated gene it will inhibits the dog's ability to remove certain drugs from the brain, leading to a buildup of these toxins. As a result of the accumulation of toxins, the dog can show neurological symptoms, such as seizures, ataxia, or even death. This is why we test for the MDR1 mutation.


What is Exercise Induced Collapse (EIC)?

  • Exercise Induced Collapse or EIC, is a genetic problem that involves a mutation in the gene involved with the communication between nerves of the central nervous system.
  • Dogs that are affected with EIC will  show hind end weakness and collapse after 5 to 25 minutes of high-drive, excitable trigger activities, such as chasing a ball, hunting, agility games  or playing frisbee. Episodes of EIC can last up to 25 minutes with disorientation, weakness and even paralysis.
  • While most canines recover from the attack, death can occur.  So it is important for dog owners to know what sports their canine can participate in and games.
  • Prevention of EIC is achieved primarily by identifying affected dogs through clinical signs or genetic testing.
  •  EIC DNA test reveals one of the 3 possible genotypes for the tested puppies:
    • CLEAR - (this dog is negative for the mutation and appears to be normal).
    • CARRIER - (this dog has the mutation gene, but may never show clinical signs).
    • AFFECTED - (this canine is positive for the mutation and will likely show clinical signs for EIC)


Does genetic testing work or is it accurate to determine parentage?

  • Not all DNA testing for parentage is successful or 100% accurate even with the best sire and dam.  However, we will send in a DNA test for first generation, F1, Pomskies. Please click the link below "Meet the Pomsky"" for more information on generations of Pomskies and testing.  Please note, this is not the same as testing for health related issues or genetic conditions.
  • Canine Journal reports "In short, dog owners are advised not to take the dog DNA testing option too seriously; rather, think of it as a fun activity that can give you a few clues about the genetic lines of your furry best friend. "
  • Terrierman's Daily Dose gives  very interesting thoughts on genetic testing -click here to read.
  • "We take very seriously the reliability of the studies on which we report and understand that there are those who are skeptical of breed identification obtained through DNA analysis. And indeed, it is important to note that DNA identification is not 100% accurate when analyzing mixed-breed dogs, nor do the companies who conduct the analyses claim it to be so." stated  the National Canine Research Council.
  • Dog food insider states " Many dog owners trying genetic tests for their dogs order multiple tests to see if they get the same results each time. Multiple tests do return different results each time." 

works cited: 
Wilson, Sarah. "DNA testing for dogs." Canine Journal. 15, August 2015. http://www.caninejournal.com/dna-testing-for-dogs/

Unknown. "Are dog breed DNA tests accurate?." Dog Food Insider. 22, February 2015. http://www.dogfoodinsider.com/are-dog-breed-dna-tests-accurate/

Libby, Tracy. "The MDR1 Gene in Dogs." Pet Place. 28, April 2015. http://www.petplace.com/article/dogs/diseases-conditions-of-dogs/features/the-mdr1-gene-in-dogs

Unknown." Breed ID." National Canine Research Council. 16, March 2016 latest version. http://www.nationalcanineresearchcouncil.com/breed-identification-1

Becker, Karen. " If Your Dog Gives This Quick Distress Signal - Do These 3 Things to Avoid Surgery."  Mercola. 11, January, 2011. http://healthypets.mercola.com/sites/healthypets/archive/2011/01/11/recognising-floating-knee-caps-in-pet-dogs.aspx

Unkown. "The Luxating Knee." OFA. 04, April, 2016. http://www.offa.org/pl_overview.html

Mayer, Julie. "Treatment Options For Your Dog's Luxating Patella."Dogs Naturally Magazine. unknown .http://www.dogsnaturallymagazine.com/treatment-options-for-the-luxating-patella

This page is for information purposes only and does not constitute and should not be construed in any way as an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to purchase any of the products of any of the third parties sites mentioned herein.
This site is not a substitute for professional veterinary care or dog trainer . Only a professional veterinarian can evaluate symptoms and diagnose illness in animals. If you feel your pet may have a medical condition, please take your pet to a veterinarian. All content is for informational purposes only.

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